These barriers are usually made out of zero-valent iron ZVI but can also be made with any other zero-valent metal. The most common way they are made is by filling a trench with ZVI, nanoscale iron, or palladium. Nanoscale iron particles can also be injected directly into the subsurface to treat plumes, and they have large surface areas and, therefore, high reactivities and can be distributed more evenly in the contamination site.
Palladium's reaction rates are rapid. The main advantages of PRBs are that it can reduce many a variety of contaminants and it has no above-ground structure. Problems with PRBs include that even with well constructed barriers, there might be the problem of hydraulic short-circuiting. Nanoscale iron can be directly into the subsurface because they are small enough to be distributed thoroughly. Because the particles are so small, they have a comparatively large reactive surface, providing a more effective reaction.
As of now, nanoscale iron is the only material that has been used with this injection strategy, and it is probably the only material that is effective in injection. ISCR is a relatively new technology, so there much scope for research and improvement. Right now, although the reactions that make up ISCR have been studied extensively, there is not much background on what factors most contribute to the effectiveness of ISCR.
One thing that needs to be done is find out exactly what reactions are taking place in the subsurface.
The pathways that a contaminant can go through are consequently more diverse. Also, questions that need to be kept in mind are: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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