PDF The Art of Applied AutoCAD for Surveyors, Architects and Civil Engineers

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Sturdy steel "I-beams" allow skyscrapers to be constructed. Has anyone ever been in a skyscraper? Skyscrapers did not exist until about 90 years ago.

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Before there were skyscrapers, the tallest buildings could only stand about 10 stories high. This was because the main material used in constructing structures was wood. Architects had plans and hopes for taller buildings, but the materials available at the time did not allow for buildings to hold the weight of buildings greater than about 10 stories tall.

Engineers began to develop steel beams that are much stronger than wood and could be used in the construction of buildings and bridges. Today, we call these sturdy beams, I-beams see Figure 1. The development of steel I-beams was precisely what architects needed in order to build taller buildings; as a result, skyscrapers began to shoot up high into the sky.

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Clearly, modern cities — with their amazing skylines — are the result of a joint effort between engineers and architects. The height and beauty of buildings and other structure cannot be accomplished without the efforts of both types of engineering. Figure 2. Architects discuss a blueprint.

So, we know that architects wanted to make bigger, more elaborate buildings, and engineers helped them to figure out how to make it possible. It seems, then, that architects come up with an idea and then make a plan that engineers help them execute. The architect's plan has a special name — it's called a blueprint see Figure 2.

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Has anyone seen a blueprint? What is the purpose of a blueprint? After the architect creates the blueprint building plan , the engineer goes over the architect's design and decides what materials must be used to make bring the architect's design to completion and to make the building strong enough for use. Many types of engineers also work on other systems within a building, such as elevators, lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, plumbing and much more.

It requires a lot of engineering teamwork to design, construct and finally prepare a building for daily use. From selecting appropriate furniture to energy efficient window coverings to sound proofing carpet, there are a lot of details that go into building design.

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An architect and engineer both participate in designing and building a structure, whether it is a house or a skyscraper. An architect designs and draws up plans for buildings, bridges, and other structures. The goal of an architect's design is to satisfy the customer's requirements, making the appearance of the structure to the customer's liking and performing quality work. Civil, architectural and structural engineers have the responsibility of applying an architect's design and carrying it through to construction.

The goal of these engineers is to satisfy the customer's requirements and make the design functional and safe. Other engineers that may be involved in building design are electrical engineers for the lighting systems, mechanical engineers for the elevator, and plumbing engineers for the plumbing system, among others.

Figure 3. A scaled-drawing. The key difference between an architect and an engineer is that an architect focuses more on the artistry and design of the building, while the engineer focuses more on the technical and structural side.

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While the architect is concerned with making the building aesthetically pleasing, an engineer makes sure that the building is functional and safe. There is, of course, a lot of overlap, but these definitions should give students a general idea.

Architects design a structure by considering the customer's needs and requirements. Engineers design the structure according to the architect's design, including electrical drawings, structural layout and plumbing. To develop and present their designs, both architects and engineers use technical drawings called blueprints. A blueprint is the detailed drawing presented by an architect or engineer that outlines their design.

Before an engineer can approve an architect's design, they have to analyze the design and select materials that can safely uphold the structure. An engineer takes the blueprint presented by an architect and determines whether or not it is possible to build, and what are the best materials to use.

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Different materials have different advantages, such as greater strength or greater flexibility. One advantage of wood, for example, is that it provides a lot of strength but can also be cut down to size with ease. Steel, however, is better for tall buildings because it is stronger than wood and can be made into long beams. There are a lot of decisions that go into every minor detail of designing and building structures.

In order to design safe structures that will last for many decades, engineers must stay current on the properties of materials, know about design flaws and research new engineering technology. Watch this activity on YouTube. It is getting close to game time and your class decides to head into the stadium to grab your seats before the action starts!

As you walk into Olympic stadium, you are still thinking about what you just learned about architects and engineers. You know that there are lots of different sites for the different Olympic events: the soccer field, the gymnasium, the swimming facility, and many more. Some of these buildings look really neat and must have taken a lot of work from both architects and engineers! Let's see if you can remember the difference between the roles of an architect and an engineer. Who can tell me what architects do? Answer: An architect focuses more on the artistry and design of the building.

And what do engineers do? If you are attracted to programming and want to get involved in shaping and creating the technological future, Computing BSc Hons at Coventry University is a degree you should consider. Our Computing degree is designed to produce graduates with a high level of knowledge across a variety of computing technologies. You will learn the core elements of computing, such as programming, algorithms, operating systems, computer architecture, enterprise information systems, databases and data retrieval, as well as robotics, usability, human computer interaction HCI and software development methods.

Advanced topics such as artificial intelligence and pervasive computing provide you with a wide-range of computing knowledge and a complete skillset. Problem-solving lies at the heart of Computer Science, making this one of the most exciting and forward-thinking courses you can study. Computer science underpins almost all the science and technology we rely on in the modern world, responsible for some of the most powerful problem-solving strategies known to mankind — the Internet, smart devices, artificial intelligence, robots and much, much more.

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On this professionally accredited course, you will have the opportunity to learn to identify and analyse the threats posed to modern information structures and develop the knowledge and skills to be able to advise a company on how to set up secure systems. We essentially cover two core themes: general-purpose computer systems technology and specialist security topics in the computing field, including ethical hacking, digital forensics and encryption algorithms.

Students and graduates of Coventry University have been shaping the landscape of performance, media and design for years. Our faculty boasts an impressive list of alumni, including a portrait painter to the Queen and an Oscar-winning filmmaker.

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Design graduates from Coventry University have gone on to work in automotive styling studios for Aston Martin, Jaguar, and BMW and many of our graduates work in high-profile positions across both the public and private sectors. If you love the fast-paced world of online content, you might want to think about taking a Digital Media degree. Aiming to help prepare you for a career in the fast-paced digital media, design and communications industries, this course offers the chance to work on multiple live projects, exploring a range of multimedia forms, practices and platforms to create imaginative, cutting-edge content.

The course aims to enable you to understand the scope and impact of digital technologies and practices in the context of various digital media industries from global and Asian perspectives. It is also designed to develop your creative thinking and experimentation capabilities in order to allow you to create innovative new applications of digital media practice.

During the course you will be able to apply your creative skills in a variety of digital media including visual and text based forms of media content, digital publishing, interface and platform design, digital storytelling, web and application development, social and interactive media. The Digital Media course is different from a traditional programming or computer science course as its focus is primarily on creative production in the field of media using digital tools in 3D modelling, application development, immersive technologies, and audio and video production among others.

You will have opportunities to engage in practical hack labs, where you will work through the entire iteration process for digital projects such as reinventing classic arcade games or deploying mobile applications to a client brief. Using the principles of Agile software development, you will also develop your project management and user testing knowledge and skills.